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Dagron, S. Oikonmides, Paris: Actes de Chilander , ed. Petit, Vizantiiskij Vremmnik 17 Actes de Zographou , ed. Regel, E. Paul Lemerle, Paris: Actes de Xenophon , ed. Petit, Vizantiiskij Vremmnik 10 , Appendix 1, nos. Guillou, A. Maria di Messina , Testi e Monumenti 9, Palermo: Instituto Siciliano di studi bizantini e neoellenici, 25 12th and 13th-century documents from Greek monasteries in Sicily. Actes de Vazelon , ed.

Ouspensky and V. Benechevitch, Leningrad: Documents on the economic and social history of Trebizond. Praktikon trans. Angold in typescript. Medvedev and D. Athens: , Collected texts translated into English, by John P. Lips and Bebais Elpidas Delehaye, H. Mamas Eustratiades, S. Michel Attaleiates, "Diataxis", trans.

Kazhdan, Byzantion 49 , ]. Munitiz, Joseph A.. Skoteine Eustratiades, S. Treatise against Charistike , trans. Trinchera, Francesco. Will, C. Golubovitch, G. Gouillard, J. Jenkins, B. Laourdas, and C. Mango, "Nine Orations", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 47 , Wiitta, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 68 , A Devotional and burial society founded in Michael Psellus, "Peri tes en Buzantion yunaikeias panegureis tes agathes", ed.

Sathas, Bibliotheca Greaca , Vol. V, Manuel Palaiologos : dialogue with the Empress-Mother on marriage: introduction, text and translation , by Athanasios Angelou, Vienna: Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, , Byzantina Vindobonensia Thanks to liturgical interest in the 19th century a huge amount of this material is accessible in English - for Greek, Coptic, Armenians, Syriac and Latin texts.

Brightman, F. Eastern Liturgies , Oxford: Festal Menaion , trans. Lenten Triodion , trans. Edited by Paul Maas and C. Trypanis, Oxford, Clarendon Press, Hymnes : introduction, texte critique, traduction et notes, by Jose Grosdidier de Matons, 5 vols.

Paris: Editions du Cerf, , Sources chretiennes ; no. Brandy, "Addendas and Corrigenda to M. Chitty, London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, Tripolitis, Antonia ed. Hymns of Divine Love , trans George A. Maloney, Danville NJ: ? Croce, with Intro, by E. Balsamon, Theodore, Opera in J.

Commentary on the Nomocanons in J. This compilation, made in the late 18th century, is usually regarded with maximum distrust. This is, as yet, nothing to equal it in English. Klement of Alexandria, c. Athanasios of Alexandria, d. Gregory of Nazianzos Farrar and Evans Ferguson Basil the Great, c. Gregory of Nyssa Farrar and Evans Ferguson Augustine of Hippo Farrar and Evans Ferguson John Chrysostom, d. Roth and David Anderson, Crestwood, N. Kyril of Jerusalem, c. Kyril of Alexandria, d.

Topographie chretienne Introduction, texte critique, illustration,traduction et notes , by Wanda Wolska-Conus Paris, Editions du Cerf, Sources chretiennes, no English trans. McCrindel, Hakluyt Society. Vladimir's Seminary Press, Giuffre, , Legum Iustiniani imperatoris vocabularium. Subsidia 3 [Italian trans? The Spiritual Meadow French trans. Le pre spirituel , introduction et traduction by M. Rouet de Journel, Paris: Editions de Cerf, ? Peri theion onomaton Divinis nominibus German trans.

See Farrar and Evans Ferguson New York : Paulist Press, c The ascetic life. The four centuries on charity , Westminster, Md. Works of the Fathers, 21 French trans. Centuries sur la charite , trans. Italian trans. The church, the liturgy, and the soul of man : the Mystagogia of St. Bede's Publications, Italian trans. La mistagogia, ed altri scritti , a cura di Raffaele Cantarella, Florence: Edizioni "Testi cristiani", The disputation with Pyrrhus of our father among the saints Maximus the Confessor , trans.

Joseph P. Farrell, South Canaan, PA. Tikhon's Seminary Press, The Earlier Ambigua of St. Maximus the Confessor , ed. Sherwood, Studia Amselmiana 36 Peeters, On the Divine Liturgy , ed. Paul Meyendorff, Crestwood, N. John of Damascus dc. Writings The Font of Konwledge, etc. Dialectica German trans. Hiersemann, , Bibliothek der griechischen Literatur. Abteilung Patristik Bd. On the holy icons , trans Catharine P. Roth, Crestwood, N. Petites catecheses ; introduction, notes, bibliographie, guide thematique et glossaire, by Marie-Helene Congourdeau, Paris : Mignes, c Refutatio and Eversio Summary and paraphrase in Paul J.

For the document to which he was responding see Paul J. Alexander, "The Iconoclastic Council of St. Sophia ", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 7 , Photios I, Patriarch of Constantinople, ca. Constantinopole: Theoleptos, Metropolitan of Philadelphia, ca. Sinkewicz, Robert E. The Monastic discourses; a critical edition, translation and study, by Robert E. Rackl, Der hl. Thomas von Aquin und das trinitarische Grundgesetz in byz.

German translation of K's "first apology" in H. Greek text: Mercati, G. Apology 2; 3 and a "Testamentum religiosum" in the same volume. Triads ed. Defense des Saints Hesychasts , trans. Meyendorff and English trans. Gendle New York: Paulist Press, The one hundred and fifty chapters , a critical edition, translation and study by Robert E.

Hagioretic Tome ed. Panagiotou K. Lawrence, London: Faith Press, , for many excepts. Series Graeca ; Hunger, Herbert. The Homilies of Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople , trans. Cyril Mango, Cambridge, Mass. Nozioni paradossali ; testo critico, introduzione, traduzione e commentario by Olimpio Musso, Naples: Universita di Napoli, Cattedra di filologia bizantina, Michaelis Pselli Orationes hagiographicae, ed Elizabeth A. Fisher, Stuttgart: B. Teubner, Angela C.

Evagrius Ponticus ? The praktikos. Chapters on prayer , trans. John Eudes Bamberger, Spencer, Mass. Hymnes [par] Symeon le Nouveau Theologien. Commentary on the Divine Liturgy , ed. Traduction et notes , by Severien Salaville. On the Life of Christ ed. John the Grammarian "Fragments inedits d'un antirrhetique de Jean le Grammairien", ed. Nicetas Stethatos, "Against the Latins", in A.

Michel, Humbert und Kerullarios , Vol. II, Paderborn: , German trans? Runciman, Eastern Schism, pp. Entretiens avec un Musulman : 7e controverse: introd. Dialoge mit einem "Perser" , [hrsg. Bohlaus, Nachf. Greek Literary Papyri , ed. Pege, Loeb Classical Library, 2 Vols. London: contains some th century poems. Paul J. Timothy of Gaza fl. On animals.. D , trans F.

Brill, -translates a prose version of original poem. Dionysiaca by W. Rouse, Loeb Classical Library, 3 Vols. London: ed. Trapp, Vienna: [Parallel text of E. G and "Z" versions] ed. Version A, P. Kalonoras, as Basilieios Digenes Akritas , Athens: ed. Grottaferrata Version and English trans J. Escorial version, S. De Creta capta. Leipzig : Teubner, Works, ed. Migne, PG ed. Hesseling and H. Theodoros Prodromos : historische Gedichte , ed. Wolfram Horandner, Vienna: Verlag d. Ihor Sevcenko and J. Chicago: Argonaut, Wagner, Wilhelm, ed. Hercher, English trans. Uberlieferung, Rekonstruktion, Textausg.

Bohlaus Nachf. Hysimine and Hysimines ed. Hilberg, Vienna: ed. Hercher German trans. Farrar and Evans signal the following: Ismene and Ismenias: a novel trans from the French , by L. Moine, London and Paris: The Tale of Achilles ed. Kallimachos and Chrysorroi ed. Kriaras, Byzantina ippotika mythistoremata, Athens: , ed.

Kriaras, Byzantina ippotika mythistoremata, Athens: , Eng. Belthandro and Chrysantza ed. Livistros and Rodamini ed. Lambert, Amsterdam: Eng. The Tale of Troy ed. Smith, A Byzantine Iliad , Copenhagen: War of Troy [translated from Old French] 12C ed. Jeffreys and M. Papathomapoulos, Thessalonica; after ? Kriaras, Byzantina ippotika mythistoremata, Athens: , Imberios and Margarona [translated from Old French] ed. Apollonios of Tyre [translated from Latin] ed. Wagner, Medieval Greek Texts , London: , Boccacio's Thesiad [translated from Italian] ed. Saggio di edizione, Xhardez, Didier, Le Traite des dialectes de Gregoire de Corinthe, edite et traduit - contribution aux methodes d'analyse d'une tradition textuelle.

Photios, Patriarch of Constantinople c. Paris, Societe d'edition les Belles lettres, , Collection byzantine. The bibliotheca : a selection , trans. Wilson, London : Duckworth, -Bibliotheca Myriobiblion , ed. Henry, Paris: Bude, ; nos. Andre R. Sfameni, Geanakoplos, Deno J. Agapitos, Panagiotis A. Smith, The study of medieval Greek romance : a reassessment of recent work , Copenhagen : Museum Tusculanum Press, Beaton, Roderick and David Ricks, eds. Beaton, Roderick, ed.

Littlewood, A. Morgan, John R. Sicherl, "Epistolographen-Handschriften kretischer Kopisten",in Scritture, libri e testi nelle aree provinciali di Bisanzio : atti de seminario di Erice settembre , ed Guglielmo Cavallo, Giuseppe De Gregorio e Marilena Maniaci, Spoleta : Centro italiano di studi sull'alto Medioevo, Westerink at 75, ed.

Aristeas' epistle Lettre d'Aristee a Philocrate; introd. Paris, Editions du Cerf, Swift and J. London: Oxford University press, Lettori bizantini di Zosimo : le note marginali del cod. Basil of Caesarea 4C. The Letters of S. Basil , ed. Hiersemann, , , Bibliothek der griechischen Literatur ; Bd. Correspondence German trans. Theodoret of Cyrrhus 5C. Procopius of Gaza ca. Epistolae et declamationes.

Antonius Garzya et Raymundus J. Theodore Studites C. Vol 31 Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, , c Photios, Patriarch CP c. Migne PG Epistolai , ed. Baletta, ed. Hildesheim ; New York : G. Olms, Berrigan, Brookline, Mass. Jenkins and B. Nicolas Mystikos Patriarch of Constantinople 10C. Martha P. Italian trans, Epistola a Giovanni Xifilino, testo critico, introduzione, traduzione e commentario, by Ugo Criscuolo, Naples: Universita di Napoli, Cattedra di filologia bizantina, Epistola a Michele Cerulario: testo critico, introduzione, traduzione e note , by Ugo Criscuolo, Naples: Universita di Napoli, Cattedra di filologia bizantina, John Mauropus, Metropolitan of Euchaita, fl.

Thessalonica: Association for Byzantine Research, Theophylactus, of Ochrida Abp. Petrus Aloisius M. Leone, Leipzig: B. Miller,, Annuaire de l'association 18 , pp. Miller, Annuaire de l'association 18 , pp. Niketas Choniates ca. Theoleptos, Metropolitan of Philadelpheia ca. The life and letters of Theoleptos of Philadelphia , ed. Hero, Brookline, Mass. Manuel Moschoulos fl. Barlaam of Calabria, Bp. Epistole greche; i primordi episodici e dottrinari delle lotte esicast e. Studio introduttivo e testi a cura, by Giuseppe Schiro. Palermo, , Testi e monumenti Istituto siciliano di studi bizantini e neoellenici.

Testi ; 1. Michael Gabras ca. Athanasios I, Patriarch of Constantinople , 14C. Talbot, Washington, D. Demetrius Kydones cc 14C. Les recuils de lettres de Demetrius Cydones ed. Raymond J. Loenertz, Citta del Vaticano, Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, Studi e testi Biblioteca apostolica vaticana ; Correspondence 2 vols. Cammelli, Paris: German trans. Chrestou Thessalonika Nicephori Gregorae epistulae : accedunt epistulae ad Gregoram missae , ed P. Leone, Matino Le : Tipografia di Matino, Correspondence de Nicephore Gregoras , ed.

Guilland Paris: Underwood, Princeton: Princeton University Press, , , Kalekas, Manouel, d. Correspondance , publiee par Raymond-J. Loenertz, Citta del Vaticano, Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, Johannes Chortasmenos Ignatios, Metropolitan of Selybria ca. Briefe, Gedichte u. Manuel II Palaiologos 15C. Legrand, Paris: , repr. Publiees d'apres trois manuscrits , ed Emile Legrand, Amsterdam: A.

Hakkert, Cento epistole a Manuele II Paleologo , ed. Ferruccio Conti Bizzarro, Naples: M. D'Auria, German trans in Europa im XV. Contents: Zwei Briefe des Manuel Chrysoloras, je ubers. Collections Francis Dvornik. Opuscula Selectae , ed.

Cereteli, 2 vols. Joannou, 'Aporiai kai luseis, Ettal: Phlorentios Fiorenzo : o, intorno alla sapienza , testo critico, introduzione, traduzione e commentario, by Pietro L. Leone, Naples: Universita di Napoli. Cattedra di filologia bizantina, Textum e codice Cizensi descripsit, lectionisque varietatem ex aliquot aliis codicibus enotatam. Adiecit M. Christianus Godofredus Muller. Editio auctoris morte praeventa, cui praefatus est M. Theophilus Kiessling, Amsterdam: A. Hakkert, , reprint of Leipzig, , edition. Abteilung Byzantinistik, Bd. Table I: Sources for Byzantine Science.

Huxley, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Monographs, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, -text and trans of two works by this 6th century mathematician and co- architect of Hagia Sophia. Liber de quatuor mathematicis scientiis. Jones, Alexander. Gieben, Series title: Corpus des astronomes byzantins ; 3. Leurquin, Regine, Theodore Meliteniote.

Tribiblos Astronomique, Amsterdam: Adolf M. Ein Byzantinisches Rechenbuch des fruhen Jahrhunderts ,. Nikephoros Gregoras or Ekthesis psephophorias ekleipseos heliou ed. C alcul de l'eclipse de soleil du 16 juillet Mogenet Amsterdam: J. Gieben, Kadar, Zoltan. Coptic Texts Farrar and Evans Ferguson Corpus papyrorum Judaicarum , ed. Tcherikover and A. Fuks, 3 Vols. Acacius d. Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople fl. Le livre d'Heraclide de Damas , traduit en francais par F.

Nau, avec le concours du R. Bedjan et de M. Briere ; suivi du texte grec des trois Homelies de Nestorius sur les tentations de Notre-Seigneur, et Theodosius, Archbishop of Alexandria d. London, K. Joshua the Stylite 6C Syriac. Hamilton and E. Although this chronicle has been attributed to Zachariah Zacharias of Mitylene, "it is clear that the work of Zachariah ended in , and that he was only one of the authorities used by the compiler of the work before us, who followed him in bks.

Severus of Antioch ca 6C. The sixth book of the select letters of Severus, patriarch of Antioch, in the Syriac version of Athanasius of Nisibis , Edited and translated by E. John of Ephesus ca. Part 3 covers Lives of the Eastern saints. Syriac text edited and translated by E. Brooks, 3 vols.

The Seventh Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles , introduced, translated and annotated by Andrew Palmer ; including two seventh-century Syriac apocalyptic texts, introduced, translated and annotated by Sebastian Brock ; with added annotation and an historical introduction by Robert Hoyland, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, Translated texts for historians ; v. Notes: "Part One presents 12 texts written between and , including date-lists, king-lists, anecdotal chronicles, inscriptions and a contemporary memorandum of the Arab conquest. Jacob, of Edessa ca.

The hymns of Severus of Antioch and others , Syriac version edited and translated by E. Brooks, 2 Vols. Al-Baldhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya d. The origins of the Islamic state, being a translation from the Arabic,accompanied with annotations, geographic and historic notes of the Kitab fituh al-buldan of al-Imam abu-l Abbas Ahmad ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri , trans. Hitti, 2 Vols. The History of al-Tabari. Editor Ehsan Yar-Shater, 38 vols. A very importan work of early Arab historiography. Good translations by a number of different scholars, with copious notes. Harun ibn Yahya 9C Arabic?

Michael the Syrian 11C Syriac. Al-Marwazi fl. II, Arabic text and translations. Benjamin of Tudela 12C Hebrew. New York, P. Feldheim, [? Itinerary of R. Benjamin of Tudela, The itinerary of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela. New York, "Hakesheth" publishing co. New York: Jahrhunderts , by A. Lamm, Spanish trans. Barcelona : Riopiedras Ediciones, Anonymi auctoris Chronicon ad annum Christi pertinens , ed J. Chabot, 4 vols. Paris: J. Gabalda, , Corpus scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium ; v. III ; , 15, 56 Syr. III; Durbecq, ] Notes: Vol. On spine of some vols. Imprint varies: v.

Contents: v. Chabot of v. Accounts of Fall of Constantinople 15C Armenian. Bell et al, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Anon prob 4C Latin. Pacatus Drepanius, Latinus 4C Latin. Latin series ; 2. Nikonovskaya letopis 9C- Slavonic. Petersburg: , in Old Russian. Lives of Cyril and Methodius 9C on Slavonic. Liutprand of Cremona c. De legatione constantinopolitana English trans. Routledge and Sons, English trans in the appendix of Ernest F.

Liber Pontificalis C Latin. Le Liber Pontificalis: Texte, introduction et Commentaire , ed.

  • An annotated date-list of the works of Maximus the Confessor. (Record no. 253270).
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Duchesne, 2 vols. Latin series Russian Primary Chronicle Laurentian Text , ed. Colliot, Regine, "Images de la femme noble a Byzance au temps des premiers empereurs latins d'apres les chroniqueurs contemporains ", Images et signes de l'Orient dans l'Occident medieval: Litterature et civilisation , Aix-en-Provence: Pubs. Russian Travelers C Russian. George, P. Cretan texts 15C Italian. Dennis, "Three reports from Crete on the Situation in Romania, ", Studi Veneziani 12 , -two Genoese and one Greek travellers' reports.

Charles Mitchell and Edward W. He kept diaries of his travles, most of which diarries have been lost. But, before they were lost, Scalamonti, his friend, wrote a Vita Kyriaki Anacontini, supplmented by family oral history. This remains a sources up to , after which we have some of the diaries. This is the first critical edition and translation. Recueil des historiens des Croisades , Paris, Imprimerie royale, , 16 Vols Historiens occidentaux.

Historiens grecs, t. Assises de Jerusalem Contents: The whole set was reissued in photofacsimilie - Farnborough Hants. Gregg Press, 5 ser. For the most part they are edited in original languages and have a modern French transalation underneath. First Crusade English trans. Gloucester MA: P. Smith Three Old French chronicles of the crusades : the History of the holy war, the History of them that took Constantinople, the Chronicle of Reims.

Studia Anselmiana: Philosophica Th Eo Lo O Rr Ed,Ta , , , S Apom S. Anselmi De Urbe ° Ntlficl|

Edward Noble Stone, Seattle, Wash. Histoire de la guerre sainte. Conquete de Constantinople. Recits d'un menestrel de Reims]. Gabrieli and E. Martha E. Frances R. Ryan, and H. Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolymitanorum. Rosalind Hill, New York T. Nelson, The ecclesiastical history of England and Normandy , trans Thomas Forester, 4 vols.

London, H. De profectione Ludovici VII in orientem , ed. Press, The deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, by Otto of Freising and his continuator, Rahewin ; translated and annotated with an introd. The two cities; a chronicle of universal history to the year A. John Hugh Hill and Laurita L. Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere [by] Peter Tudebode , trans. Hill, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, The history of Jerusalem. Aubrey Stewart, London, [? Emily A. Babcock and A. Paris : Union general d'editions, English trans.

Shaw, Margaret R. Robert de Clari , fl The Conquest of Constantinople. La conquete de Constantinople , ed. Champion, La Conquete de Constantinople. Traduction par Pierre Charlot. Paris : Union general d'editions, The Conquest of Constantinople , trans. La conquista di Constantinopoli [di] Roberto di Clari. Life of St. Histoire de saint Louis. Paris: Club des libraires de France []. Liber consuetudinum Imperii Romaniae. Feudal institutions as revealed in the Assizes of Romania, the law code of Frankish Greece : translation of the text of the Assizes with a commentary on feudal institutions in Greece and in medieval Europe , by Peter W.

Series title: University of Pennsylvania. Baynes, Norman Hepburn, and H.

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Moss, eds. Byzantium; an introduction to East Roman civilization , Oxford, Clarendon Press: collected essays. Byron, Robert, The Byzantine achievement : an historical perspective, A. The Cambridge medieval history. Joan Hussey Vast, with good bib and maps. Christophilopoulou, Aikaterine, Byzantine history , trans. Amsterdam : A. With introd. Every, George, The Byzantine patriarchate, , 2d ed. Blackwood, Finlay and Gibbon defined the field for English speakers.

Brookline, Mass. Gibbon, Edward, Decline and fall of the Roman empire , introd. London, Dent; New York, Dutton, , - with many other editions] Gibbon's negative opinion of Byzantium held back its study for generations. Hartley, New York: Capricorn, Nice line drawings. Hendy, Michael F. Hussey, J. Hutton, William Holden, Constantinople; the story of the old capital of the empire ,. Nendeln-Liechtenstein, Kraus Reprint, Laiou, Angeliki E. Lemerle, Paul, The agrarian history of Byzantium from the origins to the twelfth century : the sources and problems , Galway, Ireland : Officiana Typographica, Galway University Press, c Mango, Cyril A.

Meyendorff, John, Byzantine theology : historical trends and doctrinal themes , 2d ed. Meyendorff''s judgment was excellent. Miller, Dean A. Unwin, , c Good bibliographies. Concentrates on political history. Norwich, John Julius Byzantium : the early centuries. Fixed on traditional issues of elite history presented in narrative form.. Runciman, Steven, Byzantine civilization , London: E. Runciman, Steven, Byzantine style and civilization , Baltimore: Penguin, Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan, The emergence of the Catholic tradition , Chicago : University of Chicago Press, [The Christian tradition ; 1] The spirit of Eastern Christendom , Chicago : University of Chicago Press, [The Christian tradition ; 2] Although part of a five volume series on the history of theology, together, these two volumes constitute one of the most insightful histories of Byzantine theological thought.

Meyendorff is a better introduction, but Pelikan goes in much deeper. Batsford: ; reissued New York: Dorset, Very basic, with not notes, but has useful line drawings. Read with Ostrogorsky. Whitting, Philip, Byzantium : an introduction , New and rev. Avoid, at all costs, the most inaccurate history of Byzantium ever written: -Asimov, Isaac, Constantinople : the forgotten empire , Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co.

It seems to be expected that the reader is familiar with the sources and research concerning the Late Antique and Byzantine rhetorical theory. Meanwhile, aiming at the reader who is not a specialist in this field, 10 it would be reasonable to describe in more detail, what the progymnasmata are and what is the subject of each of the four parts of corpus Hermogenianum.

In the section on the Late Antique theory, Menander of Laodikeia is not mentioned at all, whereas his treatises greatly influenced the rhetorical practice of the Byzantines and were used by the compilers of textbooks and compendia. In general, in this essay unlike the other chapters of CIHB there are few mentions of specific authors and their works - only the main stages of development are outlined.

Besides, almost nothing is told about the contribution of scholars of the Paleologan period, although the 13th - the beginning of the 14th c. Does it mean that the Byzantines did not study Hermogenes at school, but immediately took up the speeches of Demosthenes or Libanios and so comprehended the rules of rhetoric? For example, the structure of the enkomion prescribed by Aphthonios is easily revealed in a plenty of secular panegyrics and hagiographic encomia. There are also some minor inaccuracies in this chapter, of which we bring only one into focus. He gives two examples of such professionals — Eustathios of Thessalonike and Gregory of Nazianzos.

The fact is that literary criticism of the Byzantines began to be studied relatively recently. Now we have at our disposal a number of articles and works on Byzantine literary criticism, but all this is research on individual authors. The creation of a general overview was the task of Bourbouhakis himself, and he performed it brilliantly. The literary criticism of the Byzantines is analyzed in chronological order, which allows us to trace its evolution. The only fundamental objection concerning this chapter is that Bourbouhakis - like Dickey in Chapter 4 - limits himself to the framework of the classical heritage.

It shows both in the title of the chapter and in the selection of material: only those cases where Byzantine authors express their opinion about the ancient literature are taken into account. In that case, much more could be told about Michael Psellos as a literary critic. Judgments about the style of contemporaries can be found also in the works of other authors, for example, John Tzetzes. The political theory of the Byzantines is a well explored subject. A significant contribution to its study was made by Magdalino himself, whose monograph on Manuel Komnenos 16 is well known to any Byzantinist.

It is analyzed how the ideology of the imperial power changed with time, the main stages and trends are distinguished. The author limited himself to the period from to , i. However, the breakdown of this ideology after does not make it less interesting, and it remains to be regretted that this period did not receive at least a brief description within the framework of this chapter.

Many Byzantine intellectuals of the Paleologan period speculate on political theory and, most importantly, Theodore Metochites and George Gemistos Plephon. The latter even proposes a concept of constitutional monarchy, completely innovative for the Byzantine state. In general, the Paleologan period is interesting because the thinkers of this era, foreseeing the rapid collapse of the Roman power, reflect on the very foundations of Byzantine ideology and often re-evaluate them. Firstly, one could question the point of view expressed at the beginning of the chapter — that there survives only a small number of treatises on government and political theory of the Middle Byzantine period p.

This statement is refuted by the author himself, considering a number of monuments of the 7th th centuries immediately related to political theory. Mirrors of princes and legislative sources of this period constitute a fairly extensive fund, allowing to trace the evolution of political thought. Even if we divide surviving representations into these three groups this can be a difficult task , such a classification will still be hardly relevant. Belonging to different groups will not mean different images.

Krallis shows that when writing history, Byzantine authors express the opinion of a particular social group or pursue their personal goals. Mainly, the period from the 9th to the 12th c. One could hardly dispute the fact that almost any historical work antique, medieval or modern is politically biased, and to reveal the political tendency of a historian is an important task of a researcher. However, to what extent is such a study appropriate within the framework of the intellectual history?

In this context, it does not matter that historian A praised the present ruler B and criticized the overthrown C, because A was an approximate of B — it is important what criteria this author chooses for criticism and praise. The negative image of the emperor could be created in different ways: the emperor could be portrayed as the incarnation of Evil Justinian by Procopius of Kaisareia , as a drunkard and lover of horseraces Michael III by Theophanes Continuatus or as a tyrant violating laws Alexios I Komnenos by John Zonaras.

This problem is stated by Krallis at the beginning of the chapter, but in fact he addresses it very rarely. As we know, Theophanes the Confessor and John Zonaras subjected their sources to ideological correction and viewed the past through the prism of modernity — this trend would be important to analyze.

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To our opinion, attributing republican views to John Zonaras is hardly correct. Kaldellis, 18 but the discussion of his monography is beyond the scope of this review. A series of similar examples of small inaccuracies could be continued. It is now time for the proponents of this field to reflect philosophically what it is that they study and on what grounds and with what legitimisation they study it.

They are quite aware that some patristic writers, for example Maximos the Confessor, were called philosophers by the Byzantine Church tradition. However, they argue that the very meaning of philosophy, and the understanding of its place and its role within this tradition were so different from its traditional philosophical meaning, that from our point of view, which is external to that of the Byzantine Christian world, it would be wrong to accept this Byzantine terminology.

I will not repeat the arguments put forward by the authors of this chapter. I will not discuss at length the case of Gregory Palamas. Firstly, one could stress that Maximos was quite aware of the difference between philosophical and purely theological approaches in which arguments were taken from the Holy Scripture and tradition. Such philosophical patristic writers Maximos is the greatest among them certainly differ from those purely theological patristic authors who rely mainly on Scripture and the Fathers.

Now, what is a right term for expressing this difference? Calling that practice theological or philosophical is a matter of terminology. However, it is clear that it was important to the thinkers of Late Antiquity, both Christian and pagan. Speaking about natural contemplation in Maximos, following M. Harrington 28 I must underline that unlike many other Byzantine Fathers Maximos treated natural contemplation as a necessary and obligatory part of Christian life.

However, one point should be made here. The later, in its philosophical sophisticated variant, cannot be considered obligatory for a Christian, because it demands a high philosophical culture and good education available only to a small elite. Not every person is called to this task.

However, natural contemplation as a way to purify the mind and obtaining knowledge, is necessary for any true Christian. In other words, he or she is called to contemplate the spiritual basis of creation, which is rooted in the Logos; but only a few are called to the rational, accurate and slow work of ascension to God via creation and to rational clarification of the essence of the intuitive contemplation of the logoi of creation.

Moreover, certainly, only few can participate in polemics with teachings that deform that essence. There is a special question about the relationship between intuitive, spiritual contemplation and the rational argument of its essence. Unfortunately, in the later Byzantine tradition these ideas of Maximos, expressed especially in Ambigua to John , were forgotten or marginalized. The place of natural philosophy was again discussed during the Palamite controversy, both sides of which tried to use Maximos as their authority and support.

However, the importance of natural contemplation with reference to Maximos was stressed mainly by the party that tried to oppose that contemplation to the mystical Hesychast practices, 32 while in Maximos there is no opposition between natural contemplation and mystical theology. Gregory Palamas, on the other hand, placed his main emphasis on the importance of the Hesychast practices and mystical union with God.

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As for natural contemplation and its importance for Christian life, Palamas in this polemics for the understandable reasons, did not give to it that important and necessary place that Maximos did. So, while I would agree in many points with Gutas an Siniossoglou with regard to the Byzantine tradition in general, 34 especially about the late Byzantine period , the case of Maximos the Confessor is more complicated.

His ideas, especially his view of the law written in nature as an equally important for the Christian life as Scriptures and tradition may serve as an important meeting point of philosophy and Christian theology, a meeting point that was not for the most part used as such in Byzantium. The intellectual history of Byzantium would be unthinkable without these themes, which were common to both pagan philosophers and Christian authors. The chapter may well serve as a general introduction to the teachings on providence, fate and free choice by the main Neoplatonists and Christian authors of the period.

It gives a broad overview of the theme, pays attention to many important authors and describes their views on the subject adequately. Perhaps, it could also have been important to pay more attention to the history of the relevant ideas that may throw some light on their true meaning, as well as the changes those ideas underwent in the writings of individual pagan or Christian authors. Middle Platonists and Later Platonist were engaged in polemics with the Stoics, and it is hard to understand their teaching without knowing those of the Stoics.

On the basis of that criticism, they elaborated their own concept of providence understood as an intellection and a will of a transcended God that was different from God Himself but reflected His absolute goodness. It would be important to stress here that already in polemics with the Stoics the Middle Platonists introduced the difference between providence and fate. The highest transcended and good, God must not be responsible for evil that occurred in the sphere of reality that was under the laws of fate.

Fate itself was understood in ontological meaning as the World Soul or Nature, and in judicial meaning as laws in which violation entailed punishment. Besides, it was a point of departure for Nemesios, who himself influenced greatly Maximos the Confessor Maximos perhaps rediscovered his teaching. Parry rightly speaks about the influence of Nemesios on Maximos p. One may add in this context that the very definitions of providence that Maximos and John of Damascus used came from Nemesios, and the history of these definitions and their origin can be traced to the Middle Platonists.

Later, Maximos the Confessor fulfilled the task of combining those two aspects. After Hierocles, he also speaks at some length about Theodoret of Cyrrus p. One may also mention John Chrysostom in this context. An interesting comparison can be made here. Its sources in Evagrios, Nemesios and Ps-Dionysios are well and truly established pp. Parry deals with both teaching at some length p. It is to add several points to his generally accurate but too brief an observation. It played a crucial role in Christology, in his logoi theory, his ecclesiology, his anthropology, his ethics and his teaching on love.

Before reviewing this chapter I would like to point out that Maximos is generally considered to be one of the main figures of the CIHB , and rightly so.